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Crushing Plant

Crushing Plant

Gregory M Wilson1, Mowafak Al-Jassim2, Wyatt K Metzger2, Stefan W Glunz3,4, Pierre Verlinden5,6, Gang Xiong7, Lorelle M Mansfield2, Billy J Stanbery8, Kai Zhu2, Yanfa Yan9, Joseph J Berry2, Aaron J Ptak2, Frank Dimroth3, Brendan M Kayes10, Adele C Tamboli2, Robby Peibst11,12, Kylie Catchpole13, Matthew O Reese2, Christopher S Klinga14, Paul Denholm2, Mahesh Morjaria15,18, Michael G Deceglie2, Janine M Freeman2, Mark A Mikofski16, Dirk C Jordan2, Govindasamy TamizhMani17 and Dana B Sulas-Kern2Show full author list

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the 2020 photovoltaic technologies roadmap - iopscience

Published 9 September 2020 • © 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Volume 53, Number 49 Citation Gregory M Wilson et al 2020 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53 493001

Over the past decade, the global cumulative installed photovoltaic (PV) capacity has grown exponentially, reaching 591 GW in 2019. Rapid progress was driven in large part by improvements in solar cell and module efficiencies, reduction in manufacturing costs and the realization of levelized costs of electricity that are now generally less than other energy sources and approaching similar costs with storage included. Given this success, it is a particularly fitting time to assess the state of the photovoltaics field and the technology milestones that must be achieved to maximize future impact and forward momentum. This roadmap outlines the critical areas of development in all of the major PV conversion technologies, advances needed to enable terawatt-scale PV installation, and cross-cutting topics on reliability, characterization, and applications. Each perspective provides a status update, summarizes the limiting immediate and long-term technical challenges and highlights breakthroughs that are needed to address them. In total, this roadmap is intended to guide researchers, funding agencies and industry in identifying the areas of development that will have the most impact on PV technology in the upcoming years

Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI

the 2020 photovoltaic technologies roadmap - iopscience

Photovoltaics (PV) has advanced at a rate that is astonishing even to experts in the field and now promises to have a prominent role in the ongoing energy transition. Consequently, it is a particularly fitting time to describe the status of PV technologies and a roadmap of future directions and challenges

For the last decade, the global PV industry has been growing at an average compound annual rate greater than 35%. At the end of 2019, the world's cumulative PV capacity was 591 GW with an annual module production capacity of 184 GW and shipments of approximately 125 GW. This exponential growth can be largely attributed to dramatic cost reductions (figure 1), solar technology improvement, complementary renewable energy policy and diversified financing. Today, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for utility scale PV plants is less than conventional fossil fuel generators throughout most of the world. According to Lazard's most recent LCOE analysis [1], the LCOE range for utility scale PV is $32 to $44 USD per MWh while the LCOE for natural gas combined cycle plants is $44 to $68 USD per MWh. The LCOE for both coal and nuclear plants are higher still. In fact, the increased installation of dispatchable PV electricity is an indication that the cost of PV coupled with energy storage is now starting to rival conventional fuels