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We have a long history of serving bag producers with ReliaKraft™ bag paper. Leading, recognizable grocery store chains, quick-service restaurant brands and department stores all depend on our bag papers. You can be certain we understand and meet your bag production needs as well.
George Town, February 23, 2021 – Endeavour Mining (TSX:EDV) (OTCQX:EDVMF) is pleased to announce that it has recently completed a positive Pre-Feasibility Study (“PFS”) for both its Fetekro and Kalana projects as part of its focus on organic growth opportunities. The robust PFS results confirm that both projects justify moving forward to the Definitive Feasibility Study (“DFS”) stage, which will now commence.
Sebastien de Montessus, President and CEO said: “The positive studies announced today confirm the compelling nature of our two most advanced projects and reinforce our focus on organic growth. Together with a number of earlier stage projects, Endeavour now has an attractive pipeline of opportunities, each of which will compete for capital with the goal of generating strong returns across operations, projects and exploration
At Fetekro, our exploration efforts have resulted in the discovery of a project with the potential to become a cornerstone mine with annual production of +200,000 ounces at low all in sustaining costs over at least 10 years while boasting robust economics. Our $20 million investment in exploration at Fetekro over the past three years has generated significant returns as we now have a project with an NPV5% of approximately $480 million at a gold price of $1,500/oz.
At Kalana, we have outlined a project with annual production of 150,000 ounces over at least 10 years with very attractive economics. Having purchased Kalana for approximately $120 million in 2017, the project now has an NPV5% of approximately $330 million at a gold price of $1,500/oz, despite the overhaul of the geological model which incorporates more conservative assumptions
From a broader ESG standpoint, in accordance with our aim to reduce our carbon footprint, both projects have low forecast emissions intensity, in line with our current operations, as well as the opportunity to benefit from renewable energy, either in the form of a solar plant at Fetekro, or from the Malian grid for Kalana which has a significant portion powered by renewables. We will now progress the Definitive Feasibility Studies for both projects, which we expect to announce in late 2021 for Fetekro and in early 2022 for Kalana.”
Endeavour expects to file a Technical Report pursuant to National Instrument 43-101 – Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects (“the NI 43-101”) in respect of the Fetekro PFS within a 45-day period.
There are numerous uses for these modular units and are typically used to form flexible, permeable and monolithic structures such as retaining walls, channel linings, hydraulic control structures and erosion protection. They are increasingly being used in architectural applications as well
Our gabion baskets are made from high quality steel wire, which is heavily galvanised to provide long term corrosion protection. An additional protective polymeric coating is also applied for gabions that are to be used in more aggressive environments, or where a longer design life is required
Our new PA6 polymer coating has been added to our range of protective coatings to offer a solution to those projects that require improved environmental and technical performance to the existing PVC and HDPE coated mesh products on the market
In selected factories, the gabion mesh is produced in compliance with CPR – Construction Product Regulation 305/2011, having EC marking in compliance with ETA-09/0414. The management and production system is certified in compliance with ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 (related to the environmental management system)
Our Jumbo Gabions are used on large scale civil engineering projects where large volumes of gabions are to be constructed. Identical in concept to our regular gabions, Jumbo Gabions are just much larger!
Sack gabions are cylindrical baskets engineered from double twisted hexagonal woven steel wire mesh. The tubular units are filled with gabion stone at the project site and laced tightly shut. This modular unit is then used to provide erosion protection for river banks, scour protection of bridge piers, or any situation that requires immediate defence from the erosion effects of water
PCC stands for Precipitated Calcium Carbonate—also known as purified, refined or synthetic calcium carbonate. It has the same chemical formula as other types of calcium carbonate, such as limestone, marble and chalk: CaCO3. The calcium, carbon and oxygen atoms can arrange themselves in three different ways, to form three different calcium carbonate minerals. The most common arrangement for both precipitated and ground calcium carbonates is the hexagonal form known as calcite. A number of different calcite crystal forms are possible: scalenohedral, rhombohedral and prismatic. Less common is aragonite, which has a discrete or clustered needle orthorhombic crystal structure. Rare and generally unstable is the vaterite calcium carbonate mineral
When Did Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) Manufacture Begin?PCCs have been made commercially for a long time—since 1841. The first producer was the English company, John E. Sturge Ltd., which treated the residual calcium chloride from their potassium chlorate manufacture with soda ash and carbon dioxide to form what they called precipitated chalk. In 1898, a new factory was built in Birmingham using the milk of lime process, which is described in more detail below. This PCC operation is now part of the Performance Minerals group of SMI.PCC production in the U.S. dates from 1938, when the C.K. Williams Company in Adams, Massachusetts, began to make PCC using the limestone from their adjacent mine. This plant was acquired by Pfizer in 1962, and became part of the Performance Minerals group of SMI on the formation of our parent, Minerals Technologies Inc., in 1992
While the process is simple on a laboratory scale, making precipitated calcium carbonates commercially on a large scale requires a great deal of process control and process technology to assure the right size, uniformity, shape, surface area and surface chemistry. This body of PCC technology developed by Specialty Minerals Research, is what makes SMI PCCs outstanding in quality and consistency.What Is Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) Made From?PCC is generally made from a high purity calcium carbonate rock called limestone. Specialty Minerals Inc. (SMI) uses high quality limestone sources for its PCC products, including some from the SMI limestone mine in Adams, Massachusetts, which has been in operation for more than 150 years.This limestone deposit is the result of a very thick layer of prehistoric sea animal shells and skeletons being laid down on the ocean floor. These shells and skeletons were largely composed of calcium carbonate. Over a period of five hundred million years this deposit was under high temperature and high pressure, and the deposit changed to a coarsely crystallized limestone. All of the organic matter that was in the deposit was removed by oxidation, a process called diagenesis.If this kind of geological process continues a very long time, the crystals become very small, forming marble, an extremely hard form of calcium carbonate. If the time, temperature and/or pressures are not great, the seabed only partially metamorphoses, and the result is very soft chalk, such as that forming the White Cliffs of Dover in England. In chalks, remnants of animal shells and skeletons are often still seen.Why Is All That Processing Done?Two reasons. First, there are several points in the PCC process where the calcium carbonate can be purified, removing much of the rock from the deposit that is not calcium carbonate—there are always some impurities in any limestone deposit. These include feldspar and other silicaceous minerals, as well as heavy metals.Second, the PCC process allows SMI to grow crystals of different shapes. The particle formed is dictated by the control of reaction time, temperature, agitation, pressure, rate of carbon dioxide addition, and post-crystallization processing. These shapes—clustered needles, cubes, prisms, rhombohedrons—have different physical properties such as powder density, surface area and oil absorption, which give them outstanding performance in many applications where ground calcium carbonate does not perform as well. Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) of some of the these shapes are shown on this page. The precipitation process also allows the growing of very fine particles, down to nanometers or hundredths of a micron—much finer than can be obtained by just grinding the limestone rock. These ultrafine nano PCCs have special applications where high performance is required. Click here to learn more about nano PCCs, which SMI has been manufacturing for more than 25 years.What Is Unique About A Precipitated Calcium Carbonate?The different shapes allow PCC to act as a functional additive in sealants, adhesives, plastics, rubber, inks, paper, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements and many other demanding applications. A formulator can choose a shape, and the physical properties that result from that shape, that gives the best performance in the end use.In the PCC process, products can be made with very small sizes, with high surface areas, high oil absorptions, and/or with different powder bulk densities— from ultra-low to super-high powder densities.Why Are Some PCCs Coated?PCCs are often coated with a low percentage (1-3 percent) of a fatty acid, such as stearic acid, or other organic material, for use in non-aqueous systems. These coatings increase the dispersibility of the PCC in the polymer or solvent as well as its compatibility with the polymer or solvent, which in turn maximizes the performance and efficiency of the PCC.The choice of coating depends on the type of polymer the PCC will be used in and the performance desired. As polymers vary widely in polarity and solubility constants, different organics are chosen to give the best compatibility and/or the best balance of properties.How Does Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Differ From Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC)?In chemical composition, they are the same. PCC is purer than the limestone from which it is made, and is lower in silica and lead.PCC’s shape and size are different from that of ground calcium carbonate (GCC). Under high magnification, GCC is seen to be irregularly rhombohedral in shape. The PCC crystal shape depends on the product, and the particles are more uniform and regular.The distribution of particle sizes in a GCC is much broader than for a PCC of the same size—that is, there are many more large particles and many more small particles than in a PCC, and the size of the largest of the particles (the "top size") is much greater for a GCC than for a PCC. The lower top size of a PCC gives better impact resistance in plastics than with a GCC. The narrower particle size distribution allows the generation of high oil absorptions, useful in certain applications.These differences can be quickly seen in these photos of a PCC and a GCC of the same median particle size, 0.7 microns
Specialty Minerals Precipitated Calcium CarbonatesSMI is the world’s largest manufacturer of PCCs, with an output of over 4 million tons of PCC each year.Some of our PCC products for paper and paperboard filling and coating include Opacarb®, Megafil®, and Velacarb® precipitated calcium carbonates.For food, nutritional supplements, pharmaceutical and personal care products, the series of eight ViCALity® USP/FCC precipitated calcium carbonates and five CalEssence® ultra low lead PCCs are manufactured in Adams, Massachusetts, in the U.S. Five SturcalTM and Calopake® EP PCC healthcare grades are manufactured in Birmingham, U.K.A wide variety of polymeric and water-based industrial products use Albacar®, Albaglos®, and Super-Pflex® PCCs, as well as the nano PCCs, Ultra-Pflex®, Multifex-MM® and a series of Thixo-Carb® PCCs, which come from Adams, Massachusetts, in the U.S. The Calopake® PCC and Calofort® nano PCCs come from SMI’s Birmingham plant
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