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In many countries, plastic waste is not managed and goes to landfills. Landfill space is limited and the amount of plastic stored is growing rapidly every year. Tighter regulations on waste management need to enforce recovery of materials and energy so as to meet the requirements of the circular economy project. In EU, 75.1% of plastic waste was processed (32.5% recycling and 42.6% energy recovery) while 24.9% still was landfilled (www.plasticeurope.org, accessed 2020.04.09). There are many methods to manage the growing amount of plastic waste, including primary recycling (re-extrusion), mechanical recycling, and chemical reuse or the use of thermal methods that generate energy (combustion, pyrolysis, gasification) (Al-Salem et al. 2009). Primary recycling allows the recovery of uncontaminated polymer residues with parameters corresponding to the starting material. It can be applied to residues that have not been used in the production process, e.g., in the extrusion, which is popular in most production centers (Singh et al. 2017a). Secondary recycling additionally uses materials that may contain contamination. These impurities are removed during conversion, after preliminary shredding. Such material is successively milled and granulated and becomes an input to plastic processing, but is usually of lower quality than that of primary recycling. Chemical recycling includes chemical processes that convert plastics into compounds that can be reused for production, mainly in depolymerization processes (solvolysis) (Singh et al. 2017a). Methods of energy recovery from polymeric materials are the least environmentally beneficial option, but the energy content of plastics is significant; they are highly efficient energy sources with similar calorific value as fuel oil (average 42 MJ/kg) (Kumar et al. 2011). However, it is necessary to continuously monitor emissions from such processes, as they can generate many organic pollutants such as dioxins (Ragaert et al. 2017). Plastics generally cannot be decomposed by microorganisms because bacteria have not developed enzymes that enable the biological decomposition of these materials (Shah et al. 2008). However, biodegradable materials that degrade under the influence of the environment are designed, such as various types of polyesters, including polylactide (PLA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) (Shah et al. 2008), which are used in the production of 3D printing filaments
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